Erhu – Chinese Two-Stringed Instrument

Erhu – Chinese Two-Stringed Instrument

Erhu is a two stringed fiddle, which belongs to the “huqin” family. It consists of a long vertical stick-like neck, at the top of which are two large tuning pegs, and at the bottom is a small resonator body (sound box) which is covered with python skin on the front (playing) end. Two strings are attached from the pegs to the base, and a small loop of string (qian jin) placed around the neck and strings acting as a nut pulls the strings towards the skin, holding a small wooden bridge in place.

 

It started from Tang dynasty (618-907). During Song dynasty (960-1279), the instrument was introduced to China and was called “Ji Qin”. During the Dynasties of Yuan (1206-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911), the erhu underwent a great development at the time of the golden age of the local operas. It has grown rapidly in the genres of solo. Erhu now has become one of the most popular instruments in China.

As the most popular one of the huqin family, erhu is used in both traditional and contemporary music arrangements, such as in pop, rock, jazz, etc. It has some unusual features. First is that its characteristic sound is produced through the vibration of the python skin by bowing. Second, there is no fingerboard; the player stops the strings by pressing their fingertips onto the strings without the strings touching the neck. Third, the horse hair bow is never separated from the strings; it passes between them as opposed to over them. Lastly, although there are two strings, they are very close to each other and the player’s left hand in effect plays as if on one string.

中国的二弦小提琴——二胡

二胡是二弦乐器,属于“胡琴”的一种。二胡有一根又直又长的琴杆,琴杆顶端有两个大大的弦轴,底部有个小琴筒,是共鸣箱。琴筒前口蒙皮,叫琴皮,也叫琴膜,它是二胡发声的重要装置。 琴杆支撑琴弦,上下两个琴轴负责调整高音,千金固定琴弦和切弦,琴码则是琴弦和琴皮之间震动的媒介体。

二胡起源于唐朝。宋朝的时候,二胡作为“稽琴”引入中国。元明清是民间戏剧的黄金时代,二胡成为了广为流传的独奏乐器。现今二胡已经成为了中国最流行的乐器之一。

作为胡琴一族中最流行的乐器,二胡不仅仅用于古典乐的演奏,也能融入当代音乐,例如流行乐、摇滚乐、爵士乐等等。二胡有很多特别的地方,首先,它的独特音色是通过拉弓让琴皮震动产生的。其次,二胡没有琴键,是通过拨动琴弦来演奏的,演奏时琴弦不能碰到琴杆。再者,马尾做成的琴弓夹置于两弦之间,用以摩擦琴弦发音。最后,虽然有两根琴弦,但是两弦相互紧挨着,演奏者在演奏的时候就像只有一根弦一样。

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